In our ongoing effort to use the blog as a way to catalog and archive all my writings and notes, I am posting this in it’s entirety. The link to the facebook post was previously published in February on our Facebook page during the TASP Conference I attended in ABQ. The content is the same!
Presented at TASP, ABQ
February 16, 2012
By Dorothy Justus Sluss
Pay for play (bouncy houses)
= are these “play” ?
Plato: essential nature of man to play. He discussed the “play leap” that occurs when children jump, skip and dance.
Play was viewed as behavior
Children were viewed as miniature adults
Aristotle (saw play as imitation)
Comenius – wrote first pic book
Locke – one of the first to recognize the value of materials – especially blocks – blocks with letters and picture on them (he invented)
Rosseau – nature wants children to be children before they are men… “Emile”
Froebel – play is the highest expression of human development in childhood for it alone is the free expression of what is in a child’s soul. Wrote “Mother’s songs, games and stories.” Wrote patty cake – “invented” circle time, block play – gifts… “Occupations” “Education of Man” Froebel had specifc things he wanted them to do with the blocks – Patty Smith Hill wanted FREE play with the blocks. Gifts = toys, Occupations = crafts
Froebel blocks were not standard unit blocks PRATT introduced unit blocks
Froebel was the first to say that play and learning are related. He was most responsible for the idea of nurturing play and he implemented the concept that play and learning are related.
Von Schiller – play as the spending of surplus energy, considered play an adult activity- more romantic approach
Pestalozzi – children should be free to explore and draw their own conclusions. First to use action as a way of learning wrote “How Gertrude Teachers her children” Begin with concrete and move to the abstract. Objects more important that ideas.
Play viewed as a mental activity
4 CLASSICAL THEORIES
Evolutionary theory/Surplus energy (Herbert Spencer)
Relaxation/Recreation Theory (Moritz Lazarus)
Practice/Pre-exercise theory (Karl Groos) viewed play as civilized and modern, play as educational, unstructured play, play prepares for adulthood
Recapitulation theory (G. Stanley Hall) children recreate evolution through their play – different levels of play, father of American playground movement, monkey bars,
Humans as Players: (Johan Huizinga) civilization arises and unfolds in and as play… he provided the first definition that is still used as a basis of play
(MODERN) CHILD STUDY MOVEMENT
Patty Smith Hill
Developed the idea of free play studied with HALL and disagreed with Froebel.
Also disagreed with Froebel
Believed in free play
Developed the unit blocks – went to Sweden to learn how to cut them
Lucy Sprague Mitchell
Talked about here-and-now curriculum – why study elevators if they have never seen one? Been on one?
Student of Dewey
Worked with Pratt
Research on how children used the patty smith hill and Carolyn pratt blocks
**any modern work to add to her work? Dissertation idea: recreate the patty hill block studies – replicate her work as dissertation…
In play the activity is its own end instead of its having ulterior result. Process not product is his… - he unbolted the chairs from the floor! RADICAL
First kinder in public school, st. louis, mo.
Focused on the social interactions bet children during play activities
Erikson (foundation for play therapy)
Arousal Modulation Theory
Berlyne = CNS wants to maintain a certain state of arousal
“Why People Play”
Cognitive Adaptive Theory
Children are meaning makers
The Trouble With Play (book)
Comment from audience:
Do Piaget’s stages apply to dual language learners???
Brian Sutton Smith
Concerns that play is romanticized
Real play is not always pleasant
“The Ambiguity of Play” 1997
if we only approach the study of play with one lens we are limiting our understanding
BF Skinner has an aspect of play that was instrinctly motivated – we think about him as external rewards, etc. but there is a part of his work that pointed to the fact there is instrinsic motivation when children are allowed to play…..